That’s not really a “Robot Framework” functionality, so the answer will really depend on the tool you want to use with “Robot Framework”.
Once you have your robot file (“script” if you like) it gets called with the robot command to run the test/task.
I’ve not used Jenkins, but I believe it has “runners” that transfer the files (or checks it out from a version control system) to the machine that that will run the test/task and then executes robot with that file.
In my case with rfswarm, I have an agent process that pulls the robot files from a server and then launches robots based on the jobs assigned to the agent. rfswarm being a performance testing tool is probably not what you are after.
But if you don’t find a suitable tool there is nothing stopping you to write one, you could write a server component that assigns jobs based on your criteria/schedule to agents and reuse the rfswarm agent to handle the script distribution and run the jobs for you. The agent <–> server protocol is documented and if you decide to go down this path ping me with any questions.